Lancaster: Dispite the other answers No there is not!
Countries spend huge sums of money making sure their Nuclear submarines can not be detected.
the only way which some body touch on was the propeller signature problem which has been solved so long ago it's now ancient history.
As for knowing which captain is on a sub !
if that were possible that counties navy secrets would be leaking like a sieve.
Russia did during the old cold war days plant a world wide net work of pasive under water sona and multible sensor Bouys to try and track other countries submariens and surface fleets.
And for awhile according to reports leaked by defectors they were successful.
But soon counter measures were put in place to render these useless.
This was copy by the USA and they had the same type .of failure the Russians experienced
The main way is to try and monitor any if possible radio traffic to and from Submarines which as you know is rare to say the least apart from the difficulty of reaching a submerge Sub.
To the fact when they are at a depth that makes ultra low frequency transmissions possable .
They are a dead (Unfortunate phrase) give away!
Yes , the technology to make submarines quieter has been way outstripped by the sophistication of detection and tracking , and anything but the most up-to-date designs will have a very hard job of avoiding detection by determined hunters .
The last plausible opponent for the West in the Atlantic is the Russian Navy , but that suffered a terrific retrenchment when the Soviet Union collapsed , and the shambles that occurred over the " Kursk " disaster demonstrated how far the rot had gone .
See how the Russian Navy is buying it's new amphibious troops carriers ( which look like an aircraft carrier ) from France instead of building them themselves .
Poor old Admiral Gorshkov must be spinning in his grave .
Have to disagree with RPS. There are ways to detect any submarine but having said that it is still like looking for a needle in a giant hay stack. Or as a very good friend of mine once reminded me, it's like a blind man in a black room looking for the black cat….that isn't there.
Sound is still both the greatest asset and enemy of the submarine. Modern technology has advanced in the realms of detection but to counter that so to have the methods of keeping a boat silent.
Several years ago the RN used to deploy on of the old diesel electric "O" boats to San Diego. Because they are super quiet they were used in the training of American Nuclear crews and much fun along with tense moments was the order of the day.
They are much quieter, but they still make enough noise to track. The U.S. has a network of listening stations all over the Atlantic ocean, listening for subs. They also have a database of the sounds specific subs make & can usually tell not only which sub they are tracking but who the Captain is.